Annual and transition report of foreign private issuers pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Financial Instruments

Financial Instruments
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2021
Disclosure of detailed information about financial instruments [abstract]  
Financial Instruments Financial Instruments
Fair value of financial instruments

Our financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, other receivables, accounts payable and accrued liabilities, and warrant derivative. As at December 31, 2021, the carrying amount of our cash and cash equivalents, other receivables, and accounts payable and accrued liabilities approximated their fair value. The warrant derivative is a recurring Level 2 fair value measurement as these warrants have not been listed on an exchange and therefore do not trade on an active market. As at December 31, 2021, the fair value of our warrant derivative was $56,017 (December 31, 2020 - $531,228).

Financial risk management

Credit risk
Credit risk is the risk of financial loss if a counterparty to a financial instrument fails to meet its contractual obligations. We are exposed to credit risk on our cash and cash equivalents and other receivables from Pfizer in connection with the BRACELET-1 study (see Note 13) in the event of non-performance by counterparties, but we do not anticipate such non-performance. Our maximum exposure to credit risk at the end of the period is the carrying value of our cash and cash equivalents and other receivables.

We mitigate our exposure to credit risk connected to our cash and cash equivalents by maintaining our primary operating and investment bank accounts with Schedule I banks in Canada. For our foreign domiciled bank accounts, we use referrals or recommendations from our Canadian banks to open foreign bank accounts and these accounts are used solely for the purpose of settling accounts payable and accrued liabilities or payroll.

We mitigate our exposure to credit risk connected to our Pfizer other receivable by entering into collaborations with global biopharmaceutical companies.

Interest rate risk
Interest rate risk is the risk that future cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate because of changes in market interest rates. We are exposed to interest rate risk through our cash and cash equivalents. We mitigate this risk through our investment policy that only allows investment of excess cash resources in investment grade vehicles while matching maturities with our operational requirements.
Fluctuations in market rates of interest do not have a significant impact on our results of operations due to the short term to maturity of the investments held.
Foreign exchange risk
Foreign exchange risk arises from changes in foreign exchange rates that may affect the fair value or future cash flows of our financial assets or liabilities. We are primarily exposed to the risk of changes in the Canadian dollar relative to the U.S. dollar as a portion of our financial assets and liabilities are denominated in such currency. The impact of a $0.01 increase in the value of the U.S. dollar against the Canadian dollar would have decreased our net comprehensive loss in 2021 by approximately $240,000.
We mitigate our foreign exchange risk by maintaining sufficient foreign currencies, through the purchase of foreign currencies or receiving foreign currencies from financing activities, to settle our foreign accounts payable and accrued liabilities.

Significant balances in foreign currencies at December 31, 2021 are as follows:
U.S. dollar
Cash and cash equivalents $ 31,102,844 
Other receivables 621,746 
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities (886,891)
$ 30,837,699 
Liquidity risk
Liquidity risk is the risk that we will encounter difficulty in meeting obligations associated with financial liabilities. We manage liquidity risk through the management of our capital structure as outlined in Note 16. Accounts payable and accrued liabilities are all due within the current operating period.