Annual and transition report of foreign private issuers pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Share-Based Compensation

v3.22.0.1
Share-Based Compensation
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2021
Disclosure of Share-based Payment Arrangements [Abstract]  
Share-Based Compensation Share-Based Compensation
Stock Option Plan
We have granted stock options to acquire common stock through our stock option plan of which the following are outstanding at December 31:
2021 2020 2019
Stock Options Weighted Average Exercise Price
$
Stock Options Weighted Average Exercise Price
$
Stock Options Weighted Average Exercise Price
$
Outstanding, beginning of year 3,764,055  4.08 2,246,947  5.31 1,249,361  8.73
Granted 1,832,500  2.99 1,817,500  3.19 1,020,000  1.42
Forfeited (110,612) 6.21 (141,418) 3.84 (12,839) 11.35
Expired (28,364) 37.63 (25,520) 62.49 (9,575) 29.07
Exercised (123,159) 1.94 (133,454) 1.81 — 
Outstanding, end of year 5,334,420  3.53 3,764,055  4.08 2,246,947  5.31
Exercisable, end of year 3,165,679  3.82 2,164,551  4.84 1,327,845  7.22
The following table summarizes information about the stock options outstanding and exercisable at December 31, 2021:
Range of Exercise Prices Number Outstanding Weighted Average Remaining Contractual Life (years) Weighted Average Exercise Price
$
Number Exercisable Weighted Average Exercise Price
$
$0.54 - $1.79
718,331  2.01 1.39 718,331  1.39
$1.80 - $3.01
1,026,573  3.85 2.36 531,173  2.47
$3.02 - $3.90
2,982,382  3.36 3.29 1,329,041  3.24
$3.91 - $7.41
478,516  1.72 6.09 458,516  6.13
$7.42 - $40.00
128,618  1.55 20.80 128,618  20.80
5,334,420  3.08 3.53 3,165,679  3.82
Option grants vest either immediately or annually over periods ranging from one to three years.

We use the Black-Scholes valuation model to estimate fair value. We use historical data to estimate the expected dividend yield and expected volatility of our stock in determining the fair value of the stock options. The risk-free interest rate is based on the Government of Canada benchmark bond yield rates in effect at the time of grant and the expected life of the options represents the estimated length of time the options are expected to remain outstanding.

The estimated fair value of stock options granted during the year was determined using the following weighted average assumptions:
2021 2020 2019
Risk-free interest rate 0.66% 0.34% 1.62%
Expected hold period to exercise 3.0 years 3.0 years 3.0 years
Expected share price volatility 110.45% 110.82% 97.90%
Expected dividend yield Nil Nil Nil
Weighted average fair value of options $1.99 $2.12 $0.87
Incentive Share Award Plan
Restricted Share Units
We have granted RSUs to non-employee directors through our incentive share award plan. Grants of RSUs to non-employee directors vest either immediately, on the third anniversary date from the grant date or when the director ceases to be a member of the board. We have also granted RSUs to certain officers and employees of the Company. Grants of RSUs to certain officers and employees of the Company vest over a three-year period. The following RSUs are outstanding at December 31:
2021 2020 2019
Outstanding, beginning of year 134,618  209,657  260,755 
Granted   154,923  270,098 
Released (94,058) (229,962) (321,196)
Outstanding, end of year 40,560  134,618  209,657 
(1) The weighted average fair value of the RSUs granted was nil in 2021 (2020 - $2.41 ; 2019 - $0.80).
Performance Share Units
We have also granted PSUs to certain officers and employees of the Company. Grants of PSUs require completion of certain performance criteria and cliff vest after 3 years or vest over a three-year period, depending on the grant. The following PSUs are outstanding at December 31:
2021 2020 2019
Outstanding, beginning of year 56,841  61,051  63,156 
Released (56,841) (4,210) (2,105)
Outstanding, end of year   56,841  61,051 
We have reserved 5,504,379 common shares for issuance relating to our outstanding equity compensation plans. Compensation expense related to stock options, RSUs and PSUs for the year ended December 31, 2021 was $3,825,901 (2020 - $2,558,974; 2019 - $1,470,153).