Annual and transition report of foreign private issuers pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Significant Judgments, Estimates and Assumptions

v3.20.4
Significant Judgments, Estimates and Assumptions
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2020
Significant Judgments, Estimates And Assumptions [Abstract]  
Significant Judgments, Estimates and Assumptions Significant Judgments, Estimates and Assumptions
During 2020, the global outbreak of a novel coronavirus identified as the SARS-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) led to the associated coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19). The full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may directly or indirectly impact our business, results of operations and financial condition, including our ability to finance our operations, expenses, clinical trials, and research and development costs, will depend on future developments that are evolving and highly uncertain, such as the duration and severity of outbreaks, including potential future waves or cycles, and the effectiveness of actions taken to contain and treat COVID-19. We considered the potential impact of COVID-19 when making certain estimates and judgments relating to the preparation of these consolidated financial statements. While there was no material impact to our consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020, our future assessment of the magnitude and duration of COVID-19, as well as other factors, could result in a material impact to our consolidated financial statements in future reporting periods.
Judgments
The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires us to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of expenses, assets, liabilities, and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. However, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in outcomes that require a material adjustment to the carrying amount of the asset or liability affected in future periods.
Estimates and assumptions
Because a precise determination of many assets and liabilities is dependent upon future events, the preparation of financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from those estimates and such differences could be significant. Significant estimates made by management affecting our consolidated financial statements include:
Revenue recognition
We entered into a Licensing Agreement which provides, among other payments, for upfront license fees in exchange for a regional license to our intellectual property. Management uses its judgment in applying the input method when determining the extent of progress towards completion of the performance obligation. Revenue recognition requires assumptions and estimates regarding total estimated costs, the complexity of the work to be performed, and the length of time to complete the performance obligation, among other variables.
Clinical trial expenses
Clinical trial expenses represent a significant component of our research and development expenses and we outsource a significant portion of these activities to third-party contract research organizations. The financial terms of these agreements are subject to negotiation, vary from contract to contract and may result in uneven payment flows to these organizations. Payments under the contracts depend on factors such as the achievement of certain events, successful enrollment of patients, and completion of certain clinical trial activities. As part of preparing the consolidated financial statements, we estimate the expense to recognize based on services that have been performed by the contract research organizations. When making these estimates, we use operational and contractual information from third-party service providers, operational data from internal personnel, and considerable judgment. We base our estimates on the best information available at the time. However, additional information may become available to us which may allow us to make a more accurate estimate in future periods. In this event, we may be required to record adjustments to research and development expenses in future periods when the actual level of activity becomes more certain. Such increases or decreases in cost are generally considered to be changes in estimates and will be reflected in research and development expenses in the period identified.
Valuation of share-based payments
Estimating fair value for stock options granted requires determining the most appropriate valuation model which is dependent on the terms and conditions of the grant. This estimate also requires determining the most appropriate inputs to the valuation model including the expected life, share price volatility, dividend yield, and forfeiture rate and making assumptions about them. The assumptions and inputs used for estimating fair value for stock options granted are disclosed in Note 10.
Valuation of warrant derivative
Estimating fair value of the warrant derivative at initial measurement, at each exercise date and at each reporting period requires determining the most appropriate valuation model. This estimate also requires determining the most appropriate inputs to the valuation model including the expected life, share price volatility and dividend yield, and making assumptions about them. The assumptions and inputs used for estimating fair value of the warrant derivative are disclosed in Note 8.
Income taxes
Uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation of complex tax regulations and the amount and timing of future taxable income. Currently, we are accumulating tax loss carry forward balances in various tax jurisdictions creating a deferred tax asset. Deferred tax assets are recognized for all unused tax losses to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the losses can be utilized. Management judgment is required to determine the amount of deferred tax assets that can be recognized, based upon the likely timing and the level of future taxable profits together with future tax planning strategies.
To date we have determined that none of our deferred tax assets should be recognized. Our deferred tax assets are mainly comprised of our net operating losses from prior years, prior year research and development expenses, and non-refundable investment tax credits. These tax pools relate to entities that have a history of losses, have varying expiry dates, and may not be used to offset taxable income within our other subsidiaries. As well, there are no taxable temporary differences or any tax planning opportunities available that could partly support the recognition of these losses as deferred tax assets.
Leases
We make judgments in determining whether a contract contains an identified asset. The identified asset should be physically distinct or represent substantially all of the capacity of the asset, and should provide us with the right to substantially all of the economic benefits from the use of the asset.
We also make judgments in determining whether or not we have the right to control the use of the identified asset. We have that right when we have the decision-making rights that are most relevant to changing how and for what purpose the asset is used. In cases where the decisions about how and for what purpose the asset is used are predetermined, we have the right to direct the use of the asset if we have the right to operate the asset or if we designed the asset in a way that predetermines how and for what purpose the asset will be used.
We make judgments in determining the incremental borrowing rate used to measure our lease liability for each lease contract, including an estimate of the asset-specific security impact. The incremental borrowing rate should reflect the interest that we would have to pay to borrow at a similar term and with a similar security.